IMAGES, FIGURES AND TABLES
It is important to note that the guidelines available in the APA manual are relatively limited. We have analysed the guidelines closely, contacted the APA Style Editor and consulted the APA blog to provide the following guidance.
In this guide the word figure refers to all images including, Photographs, Paintings, Drawings, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs, Tables, etc
Any image used in your assignment requires a caption. If the image is not your own work it also requires an intext citation to the original source.
A caption should include
- The word Figure (with a capital letter and in italics)
- A number (from 1, in numerical order)
- A title for the figure or brief description of the work
- An in text citation for the reference of the source (if not your own work), which includes the Author(s), date and page number for the source, i.e. (Smith, 2010, p.13)
If you got the image from
- A BOOK, reference it as you would a quotation from a book
- A JOURNAL, reference as you would a quotation from a journal
- A WEB PAGE, reference it as you would a quotation from a web page
Image etc. taken from a book source
Figure 1. Social distances of animals (Fowler, 2008, p. 13)
Fowler, M. (2008). Restraint and handing of wild and domestic animals (3rd ed.). Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell.
Image taken from a journal
Figure 2. Male holotye of Hypsiboas gladiator (Kholer et al., 2010, p. 584).
Kohler, J., Koscinski, D., Padial, J. M., Chaparro, J. C., Handford, P., Lougheed, S. C., & Riva, I. (2010). Systematics of Andean gladiator frogs of the Hypsiboas pulchellus species groug (Annuar, Hylidae). Zoologica Scripta, 39(6), 572-590. doi:10.111/j.1463-6409.2010.00448.x
Image taken from the internet
Figure 3. Fantail vector (McMillan, 2009).
McMillan, T. (2009). Fantail vector. Retrieved from http://www.kiwiwise.co.nz/photo/fantail-vector
- Figures are any type of graphical illustration other than a table, such as: graphs, charts, maps, drawings, diagrams, and photographs.
- Figures must add to the reader’s understanding of the content of the paper; they should not be added just to provide visual interest. For more information, see section 5.20 of the APA Publication Manual.
- Figures must be used ethically. Copyright laws must be followed; simply citing a source does not make its use copyright compliant. A good rule of thumb: Use figures from ClipArt, Creative Commons, or the library’s rights-cleared image database, Image Quest.
References and Citations:
- You must provide complete citations for figures and tables in your paper and in your reference list.
References with NoodleTools:
- If the figure came from an image database, such as Image Quest, choose Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph from NoodleTools’s citation type drop-down menu.
- If the figure came from within a source like a book, an article, or a web site, choose a citation type that matches the source.
- Figure #
- Should be italicized.
- The number will reflect if it is the first (1), second (2), third (3), etc. figure in the paper.
- In your caption, you should briefly explain what the figure is about and how it connects to the content of the paper. The caption information should allow the figure to stand alone.
- Rasmussen College allows you to insert the words Taken from: followed by a copy of your reference item entry from NoodleTools. No hanging indent is needed.
- APA suggests that you use its official copyright permission wording based on type of source used. The wording switches the normal order of a reference item entry. See Section 2.12 of the Publication Manual if you choose to use this method.
- Copyright date and the name of copyright holder, if available.
- Figure numbers are used in the text to refer to and explain the presence of the figures.
- The citation style used for Figure 1 and 2 is what Rasmussen allows, rather than what APA suggests. The citation for Figure 1 is from an image database; the citation for Figure 2 is from a web site.
- The citations are identical to the reference list item for the figure (or the figure’s source).
For more information, you can view the Citing Tables, Graphs, and Images page of the APA Guide below.