Like all teachers, I’ve spent many hours correcting homework. Yet there’s a debate over whether we should be setting it at all.
I teach both primary and secondary, and regularly find myself drawn into the argument on the reasoning behind it – parents, and sometimes colleagues, question its validity. Parent-teacher interviews can become consumed by how much trouble students have completing assignments. All of which has led me to question the neuroscience behind setting homework. Is it worth it?
'My son works until midnight': parents around the world on homework
Increasingly, there’s a divide between those who support the need for homework and those who suggest the time would be better spent with family and developing relationships. The anxiety related to homework is frequently reviewed.
A survey of high-performing high schools by the Stanford Graduate School of Education, for example, found that 56% of students considered homework a primary source of stress. These same students reported that the demands of homework caused sleep deprivation and other health problems, as well as less time for friends, family and extracurricular pursuits.
When students learn in the classroom, they are using their short-term or working memory. This information is continually updated during the class. On leaving the classroom, the information in the working memory is replaced by the topic in the next class.
Adults experience a similar reaction when they walk into a new room and forget why they are there. The new set of sensory information – lighting, odours, temperature – enters their working memory and any pre-existing information is displaced. It’s only when the person returns to the same environment that they remember the key information.
But education is about more than memorising facts. Students need to access the information in ways that are relevant to their world, and to transfer knowledge to new situations.
Many of us will have struggled to remember someone’s name when we meet them in an unexpected environment (a workmate at the gym, maybe), and we are more likely to remember them again once we’ve seen them multiple times in different places. Similarly, students must practise their skills in different environments.
Revising the key skills learned in the classroom during homework increases the likelihood of a student remembering and being able to use those skills in a variety of situations in the future, contributing to their overall education.
The link between homework and educational achievement is supported by research: a meta-analysis of studies between 1987 and 2003 found that: “With only rare exceptions, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant.”
The right type of work
The homework debate is often split along the lines of primary school compared with secondary school. Education researcher Professor John Hattie, who has ranked various influences on student learning and achievement, found that homework in primary schools has a negligible effect (most homework set has little to no impact on a student’s overall learning). However, it makes a bigger difference in secondary schools.
His explanation is that students in secondary schools are often given tasks that reinforce key skills learned in the classroom that day, whereas primary students may be asked to complete separate assignments. “The worst thing you can do with homework is give kids projects; the best thing you can do is reinforce something you’ve already learned,” he told the BBC in 2014.
The science of homework: tips to engage students' brains
So homework can be effective when it’s the right type of homework. In my own practice, the primary students I teach will often be asked to find real-life examples of the concept taught instead of traditional homework tasks, while homework for secondary students consolidates the key concepts covered in the classroom. For secondary in particular, I find a general set of rules useful:
- Set work that’s relevant. This includes elaborating on information addressed in the class or opportunities for students to explore the key concept in areas of their own interest.
- Make sure students can complete the homework. Pitch it to a student’s age and skills – anxiety will only limit their cognitive abilities in that topic. A high chance of success will increase the reward stimulation in the brain.
- Get parents involved, without the homework being a point of conflict with students. Make it a sharing of information, rather than a battle.
- Check the homework with the students afterwards. This offers a chance to review the key concepts and allow the working memory to become part of the long-term memory.
While there is no data on the effectiveness of homework in different subjects, these general rules could be applied equally to languages, mathematics or humanities. And by setting the right type of homework, you’ll help to reinforce key concepts in a new environment, allowing the information you teach to be used in a variety of contexts in the future.
Helen Silvester is a writer for npj Science of Learning Community
Follow us on Twitter via @GuardianTeach. Join the Guardian Teacher Network for lesson resources, comment and job opportunities, direct to your inbox.
Tel:053 9421000 ext 235
The School Completion Programme was introduced in 2002. There are currently five such programmes operational in Co. Wexford. The School Completion Programme focuses on young people agedbetween 4 and 18 years. The programme forms part of the Dept. of Education & SkillsSocial Inclusion Strategy (DEIS) to help children and young people who are at risk of or who are experiencing educational disadvantage. The programme generally includes the following elements:
Identifying and supporting children at risk of not reaching their potential in the education system because of poor attendance.
Encouraging participation and retention via initiatives such as breakfast clubs, homework clubs, afterschool supports, mentoring programmes and therapeutic interventions.
Ensuring that schools have in place the appropriate procedures to monitor identify and respond to attendance, participation and retention issues.
Implementation of transfer programmes to support young people transitioning from primary to post-primary school.
Target Age Group 4-18 years
Referrals Referrals are accepted from school Principals, Vice Principals, Home School liaison Officers, Guidance Counsellors, Education Welfare Officers, Parents (via attendance tracking) and outside voluntary and statutory agencies.
Eligibility Criteria Inclusion in the programme is based on an agreed set of criteria and relevant stakeholders use a formal procedure to refer young people at risk of early school leaving. Criteria used in the identification of young people at risk of early school leaving include;
- Poor attendance record
- Suspension / expulsion
- School refusal
- Health issues / mental health
- Non attendance due to various reasons i.e. bereavement/separation/ bullying/relocation
- Teen pregnancy
- Member of a minority group
- Poor educational attainment / difficulty with literacy / numeracy
- Family circumstances and or lack of family support
- Social deprivation
- Behavioural issues / emotional problems
- Family history of early school leaving
Contact Person: Margaret Sheriff (Co-ordinator)