Whales and dolphins make up the cetaceans, a special group of mammals adapted to life underwater. Their transition from dry land to an aquatic environment is one of the greatest examples of evolutionary adaptation. Georgia Tsagkogeorga and her colleagues at Queen Mary University of London were interested in how cetaceans evolved in comparison with their closest relatives. In particular, they wanted to know if the molecular adaptations related to aquatic lifestyle appeared before or after whales and dolphins split from the hippos. Using GridPP resources, the team were able to test different evolutionary hypotheses on a vast scale to gain an insight.
A humpback whale, one of the species featured in the study.
To test whether selection pressures acted on a given gene, a series of probabilistic analyses using codon models of evolution need to be performed. This involves fitting two models onto the data: one representing the null neutral evolution hypothesis and a second model assuming selective pressures acting on the gene. By comparing the likelihoods of the null vs. alternative models, the selective regime of the gene in the lineage of interest can be inferred. However, this needed to be done for 11,000 genes across five lineages of aquatic and semi-aquatic mammals.
Evolutionary relationships among laurasiatherian mammals as used in molecular evolution analyses performed with GridPP resources. Figure reproduced from (Tsagkogeorga, 2015).
Fortunately the required analyses were highly parallelisable, making them ideal for running on the Grid. With support from the Queen Mary University of London Tier-2 cluster team, Tsagkogeorga and her colleagues were able to run the required 110,000 computations quickly and efficiently. The conclusions, published in Royal Society Open Science, show that the most significant molecular adaptations to aquatic life, for example the evolution of underwater sensory perception or their ability to dive, appeared in cetaceans after the split with the hippos, 55 million years ago.
What they said
These analyses would have taken months to complete without access to parallel computing. Our study benefited greatly from the 3,000+ CPU cores of QMUL GridPP cluster, by speeding up the analyses to only a few weeks or even days.Dr Georgia Tsagkogeorga, School of Biological and Chemical Science, QMUL
- Compute: The studies were run on the High Throughput Computing (HTC) GridPP cluster at QMUL;
- Storage: Results were stored on the QMUL cluster’s Lustre-based storage system.
Supporting GridPP sites
- Queen Mary University of London
- G Tsagkogeorga, “A phylogenomic analysis of the role and timing of molecular adaptation in the aquatic transition of cetartiodactyl mammals“, R. Soc. open sci. 2 150156 (2015)
In addition to the support provided by STFC for GridPP, this work was funded by the European Research Council (ERC 1076 Starting grant no. 310482). This case study originally featured on the EGI website.
Essay on Htc Case Analysis
2626 WordsNov 14th, 201211 Pages
--HTC Corp.in 2009
Class: Competitive Marketing Strategy
Student Name: Fisher Yu
1. Evaluate HTC’s performance to date. What are its competitive advantages and vulnerabilities? Be sure to elaborate on HTC and its competitors’ positioning on performance and cost.
Financial performance of HTC compared with its main competitors
For this part, we will be using ROA (return on assets), ROE (return on equity), and profit margin to evaluate HTC’s abilities to generate profits and to control its cost with comparison to other manufacturers.
With reference to the financial ratios of HTC in Exhibit 1a, over five years (2004 to 2008), its average net profit margin was 18.8%, return on assets 34.2%, and return on equity…show more content…
HTC will face fewer barriers when its new products entering Chinese market since they are a Taiwan based company. * HTC has a diverse customer base (no one client held more than 10% of HTC’s business), which means that HTC is more risk resistant. * HTC’s average product life cycle is approximately 3 quarters, which is about half of the industry average. This will give HTC more flexibility to react on market responses.
* Revenue generated from selling Microsoft mobile devices may be affected by the downward trend of the popularity of the Microsoft mobile operating system. * Giving up on the ODM business means that they lose a less-risky business that can gain them continuous cash flow. Now the growth of the company completely depends on the sales of their own branded mobile devices. * The fast shift of the mobile device industry and the fierce competition (especially from Samsung) may force a company out of business in a few years. * Ability to negotiate with operators in the US may affect its development in the US. This may limit its growth in the future given that the US is the No.1 smartphone market all over the world. * Lawsuits from Apple over patents may further affect HTC extending its business in the US market. * Its so-called innovative or revolutionary products do not gain the company as much credits as Samsung or Apple does. The market will test its ability to